© Morgane Bomsel
In a study published in the journal Cellular and Molecular Life Sciencesscientists show that the presence of the infectious SARS-CoV-2 virus in platelets is a predictive blood marker for a critical form of COVID-19. The platelets are then able to transmit the infection to the innate immunity cells. This process can be blocked by a medication (A drug is a substance or compound presented as possessing…) Platelet aggregation inhibitors used in cardiology (Cardiology is the medical specialty that studies the heart and its…): Abciximab.
Despite the vaccination (Vaccination is a process of introducing an external agent (who…) and the development of symptomatic treatments, about 5 to 10% of people with Covid-19 progress to a severe or critical form. These patients mainly develop lung infection (A pneumopathy is a pathology of the lung tissue. Etymologically, it is a…) severe that progresses to syndrome (A syndrome is a set of clinical signs and symptoms to which a patient is prone…) acute shortness of breath, accompanied by the spread of virus (A virus is a biological entity that needs a host cell to use it…) Airways to other sites that target innate immune cells such as macrophages. A worsening of the airways usually occurs during this time second (Second is the feminine of the adjective second, which comes immediately after the first or that…) week after the onset of the first symptoms. It coincides with coagulation disorders, including episodes of poorly understood platelet microaggregation, particularly in the lungs, even in people with no history Illness (Disease is an alteration in the functions or health of a living organism, animal…) Cardiovascular. However, the treatment anticoagulants (An anticoagulant is a chemical substance that has the property that…) of COVID-19 patients is of limited effectiveness.
In addition to their essential role in hemostasis, platelets combine well-established immunological functions that contribute toinflammation (Inflammation is a stereotypical immune response of the…) and can harbor and transport viruses in certain viral pathologies. In addition, recent studies have shown that megakaryocytes, the precursor cells to platelets, can migrate bone marrow (The bone marrow is tissue that is found in the middle of the bones. It comes in two forms: the yellow marrow…) where they arise, in the lungs, where they produce platelets locally. These end their short circuit life (Life is the given name 🙂 captured by innate immune cells (macrophages), which activate them. Platelets could therefore be involved in the pathophysiology of severe COVID in various ways: in the genesis of hemostasis disorders (thrombosis); by promoting viral spread during their Traffic (Road traffic (Anglicism: road traffic) is the movement of motor vehicles…) ubiquitous; finally in “theThunderstorm (A storm, from Old French ore meaning wind, is a disturbance…) cytokine” lets go (A triggered (or snap roll) is an aerobatic maneuver.) by the macrophages that activated them.
How to predict that a Patiently (In medicine, the term patient commonly refers to a person who…) with COVID-19 is there a risk of death? To answer this crucial question with consideration load (The payload represents what actually is…) Regarding the individual and the prognosis of the patients, the scientists hypothesized that platelets derived from SARS-CoV-2-infected megakaryocytes in the bone marrow or lungs could carry viruses related to those seen in COVID-19 Hemostasis disorders and dissemination could contribute and contribute to the critical development of the disease. In fact, the researchers were able to show in critically ill patients that the megakaryocytes of the bone marrow and the pulmonary capillaries were infected in the autopsy tissue. These infected megakaryocytes are able to produce infected platelets that reach the lungs where, by interacting with the lung macrophages, they trigger a cytokine storm rich in factors affecting vascular integrity and inflammatory molecules.
Detection of these infected platelets in the blood (Blood is a fluid connective tissue composed of free cell populations, including the…) of patients with severe COVID-19 in the first two weeks after the onset of the first symptoms is a predictive marker for a fatal outcome in almost all patients (in 19 out of 20 analyzed cases). In addition, the viruses contained in the blood platelets retain their infectious character. Once captured by macrophages, infected platelets transmit the infection to them in vitro after a process blocked by the targeting protein (A protein is a biological macromolecule composed of one or more…) GPIIbIIIa at the Pop up (A surface generally refers to the superficial layer of an object. The term a…) platelets by the platelet aggregation inhibitor abciximab.
Scientists point out the immunological role of platelets and their main involvement in severe COVID-19 at three levels: i) all (The whole understood as the whole of existing is often interpreted as the world or…) firstly in hemostasis disorders with the formation of the thrombus (clot blocks the vessels), ii) in viral dissemination where platelets a Horse (The horse (Equus ferus caballus or Equus caballus) is a large herbivorous mammal and…) Trojan for the infectious virus that protects it from being destroyed by the immune system (An organism’s immune system is a coordinated set of elements of…) and iii) the Storm (A storm is a violent weather phenomenon with broad…) enhanced by cytokines. These undesirable effects could be clinically combated at once with specific platelet aggregation inhibitors, which would increase the patient’s chances of survival. The researchers’ findings also make it possible to predict the fatal prognosis early enough to anticipate appropriate medical treatment.
Platelets infected with SARS-CoV-2 are a therapeutic target for this convergent (in space travel, convergent in mathematics, convergent sequence convergent series…) the multiple clinical manifestations of critical COVID-19.
1- In the bone marrow, SARS-CoV-2 infects megakaryocytes and accelerates their differentiation. These migrate to the lungs, where they circulate and produce virus-containing platelets lungs (The lungworts are plants of the Boraginaceae family, belonging to the genus…).
2- These infectious platelets spread the virus elsewhere by infecting innate immune cells.
3- Overactivated platelets contribute to inflammation systemic (The systemic – from Greek “systema”, “together…) and thrombus formation observed in complications of severe COVID-19.
4- The cytokine storm, enriched with inflammatory molecules and cytokines that affect the integrity of the surface of the vessels and the alveoli of the lungs, allows platelets to penetrate the lung tissue and infect the alveolar macrophages.
© Morgane Bomsel Fernando Real.
Infection of lung megakaryocytes and platelets by SARS-CoV-2 promises lethal COVID-19
Zhu A, Real R; Capron C, Rosenberg A, Zhu J, Cotiggnies-Calamarte A, Massé JM, Moine P, Bessis S, Godement M, Geri G, Chiche JD, Valdebenito S, Belouzard S, Belouzard J. Dubuisson, G. Lorin de la Grandmaison, E. Eugenin, E. Chevret S, Annane D, Cramer-Bordé E, Bomsel M.
Cell Mol Life Sciences June 16, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-022-04318-x
room mucous membrane (The mucous membranes (from Latin mucus) are thin tissue layers of ectodermal origin…) of HIV and mucosal immunity (Cochin Institute/CNRS/Inserm/University of Paris (Paris is a French city, capital of France and the capital of the region…) quoted). 22 Street (The street is a traffic area in the city that serves as a place to live and locate…) Mechain. 75014 Paris.
Morgane Bomsel – Director of research (Scientific research primarily refers to all measures taken to …) CNRS (The National Center for Scientific Research, better known by its acronym CNRS, is the largest…) In theinstitute (An institute is a permanent organization created for a specific purpose. It is…) Cochin – morgane.bomsel at inserm.fr
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