Atropine: indication, effect, side effects

Atropine is a toxic substance that belongs to the class of alkaloids. It is indicated, among other things, for heart diseases, liver colic or acute poisoning. Indications, effect and side effects.

Definition: What is atropine?

Atropine is a toxic substance from the class of alkaloids. It is derived from a molecule found in certain plants Nightshade family such as belladonna, datura, mandrake or henbane. In the form of salt (atropine sulfate), it is used as anticholinergic in certain emergency situations, preoperatively before anesthesia or during operations, and as an antidote to certain toxic substances (gas, pesticides, organophosphates).

What is the mode of action of atropine?

Atropine is a anticholinergic substance that means, you blocks muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the central and peripheral nervous system. It prevents the action of this neurotransmitter in the body. The resulting effects are: cessation of certain secretions (sweat, saliva, bronchial mucus etc.), Vagus nerve inhibition (Tachycardia, pupil dilation, accommodation paralysis of the lens also called cycloplegia), the Smooth muscle relaxation (especially bronchial and intestinal), Excitement, delusions, depression. When used in large doses, atropine first excites the central nervous system before paralyzing it.

What are the indications for atropine?

Atropine may be indicated Emergency situations in heart disease such as arrhythmias (atrioventricular blocks) or slow heart rate (sinus and vagus bradycardia) and Hepatic colic, renal colic, spasmodic pain in the digestive tract, acute intoxication B. by anticholinesterases or parasympathomimetics (examples: poisoning with nerve gases, fungi, etc.), in the treatment of amblyopia (Deterioration of vision), in the cycloplegia (drug accommodation paralysis and consequent dilation of the pupils, a technique for conducting eye examinations) or in the case of uveitis. Atropine is also used as part of a Premedication before general anesthesia or to avoid side effects of certain medications during surgery.

What drugs contain atropine?

Atropine is found in eye drops (e.g.: Atropine Alcon®)injectable solutions (e.g.: atropine sulphate Lavoisier®) and in combination with other active ingredients as in Ineurope®.

When is an atropine injection necessary?

Injectable atropine is indicated for the treatment of heart problems (medical emergencies) such as atrioventricular block, sinus and vagal bradycardia and in the treatment of Hepatic colic, renal colic, spasmodic indigestion or acute poisoning by anticholinesterases or parasympathomimetics.

When do I take atropine eye drops?

In the form of eye drops, atropine is used to treat amblyopia (vision changes), cycloplegia (drug technology to prevent accommodation and dilation of the pupil to perform eye exams), keratitisof uveitis and iridocyclitis (Inflammatory reactions of the uvea and iris).

What is the dosage of atropine?

atropine in eye drops it is dosed at 0.3%, 0.5% or 1%. atropine Injection is dosed at 0.1, 0.2, 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg/ml according to commercial disciplines.

What are the side effects of atropine?

The most common side effects are visual disturbances (dilated pupils, blurred vision, intolerance to light), a Decrease in bronchial and gastric secretionsof dry mouth (with difficulty swallowing or speaking and feeling thirsty), decrease in sweating, of indigestion (constipation, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, flatulence), etcLoss of taste, dry skin and rashes (or hives). Other effects may also occur, particularly at higher doses such as Excitement, coordination problems, confusion, hallucinations, increased body temperature, heart problems (tachycardia, arrhythmias, bradycardia), facial flushing and difficulty urinating. Less frequently, psychotic reactions, allergic reactions, epileptic seizures, drowsiness, severe allergies, ventricular fibrillation, chest pain or a rapid increase in blood pressure have been described.

What are the contraindications of atropine?

The contraindications of atropine do not apply in cases where its use occurs in a life-threatening situation. Atropine is contraindicated in hypersensitivity to atropine or any of the other ingredients in the medicine. It is also contraindicated in case of a history of angle-closure glaucomain case of difficulty urinating (urinary retention associated with urethro-prostatic diseases), Disease of the esophagus, intestinal obstruction (paralytic ileus), distension of the colon (toxic megacolon) or during breastfeeding. Caution is advised Prostatic hypertrophy, kidney or liver failure, heart failure, arrhythmias or hyperthyroidism, COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), pyloric stenosis (Stomach), Fever (or high ambient temperature). Caution is also required with zchildren and elderly, who are more prone to side effects.

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